Crude oil is a darkish yellow-to-black oily liquid that is normally present in pure underground reservoirs. It was formed when the stays of animals and plants from tens of millions of years in the past had been lined by layers of sand. Heat and stress from these layers turned the remains into crude oil. This process is why crude oil is known as a fossil gas. Crude oil is extracted and used to make fuel and other petroleum products.

Hydraulic fracturing is one technique used to extract oil and pure gas from deep shale formations.

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Crude oil is a mixture of a large number of constituents. It consists primarily of hydrocarbons, which are chemicals composed of hydrogen and carbon. Crude oil also incorporates a whole bunch of substances that include benzene, chromium, iron, mercury, nickel, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, toluene, and xylene. Whole petroleum hydrocarbons is a term used to explain the several hundred chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil.

There are four kinds of crude oil:
Class A: Mild, Volatile Oils: These oils are extremely fluid and extremely toxic to humans and embrace jet gasoline and gasoline.
Class B: Non-Sticky Oils: These oils are waxy and less toxic to people and include diesel gas and light crude oil.
Class C: Heavy, Sticky Oils: These oils are brown or black and sticky or tarry and embody most crude oils. Their toxicity is low, but if spilled, their impacts on waterfowl and wildlife may be severe.
Class D: Non-Fluid Oils: These oils are non-toxic and embody heavy crude oils. They are difficult to scrub up, and if spilled, their impacts on waterfowl and wildlife might be extreme.

Crude oil is refined to provide gasoline, diesel fuel, jet gasoline, residential fuel oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gases similar to propane, and other sources of vitality to supply heat or electric energy. It is usually used to make lubricants, waxes, ink, crayons, eyeglasses, tires, CDs and DVDs, ammonia, dishwashing liquid, and a few health and private care merchandise. The United States is the third prime crude oil-producing nation after Russia and Saudi Arabia.

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