Crude oil distillation unit: Distills the incoming crude oil into various fractions for additional processing in other models.
Vacuum distillation unit: Additional distills the residue oil from the bottom of the crude oil distillation unit. The vacuum distillation is carried out at a strain well below atmospheric pressure.
Naphtha hydrotreater unit: Makes use of hydrogen to desulfurize the naphtha fraction from the crude oil distillation or other models throughout the refinery.
Catalytic reforming unit: Converts the desulfurized naphtha molecules into increased-octane molecules to produce reformate, which is a component of the tip-product gasoline or petrol.
Alkylation unit: Converts isobutane and butylenes into alkylate, which is a really excessive-octane element of the tip-product gasoline or petrol.
Isomerization unit: Converts linear molecules resembling normal pentane into higher-octane branched molecules for blending into the top-product gasoline. Also used to convert linear normal butane into isobutane for use in the alkylation unit.
Distillate hydrotreater unit: Makes use of hydrogen to desulfurize some of the opposite distilled fractions from the crude oil distillation unit (corresponding to diesel oil).
Merox (mercaptan oxidizer) or related models: Desulfurize LPG, kerosene or jet gasoline by oxidizing undesired mercaptans to organic disulfides.
Amine gas treating, Claus unit, and tail gasoline treatment for changing hydrogen sulfide gasoline from the hydrotreaters into product elemental sulfur. The large majority of the sixty four,000,000 metric tons of sulfur produced worldwide in 2005 was byproduct sulfur from petroleum refining and pure gas processing plants. 
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit: Upgrades the heavier, increased-boiling fractions from the the crude oil distillation by converting them into lighter and decrease boiling, extra priceless products.
Hydrocracking unit: Uses hydrogen to upgrade heavier fractions from the crude oil distillation and the vacuum distillation models into lighter, extra valuable products.
Visbreaking unit: Upgrades heavy residual oils from the vacuum distillation unit by thermally cracking them into lighter, extra valuable decreased viscosity products.
Delayed coking and Fluid coker models: Convert very heavy residual oils into finish-product petroleum coke in addition to naphtha and diesel oil by-merchandise.
- Liquid petroleum fuel (LPG)
- Gasoline (also known as petrol)
- Jet gas and different aircraft gasoline
– Automotive and railroad diesel fuels
- Residential heating gas
- Different mild fuel oils
- Heavy fuel oils
- Bunker gasoline oil and different residual fuel oils
- Specialty petroleum naphthas
- Specialty solvents
- Elemental sulfur (and typically sulfuric acid)
- Petroleum coke
- Lubricating oils
- Waxes and greases
- Transformer and cable oils
- Carbon black
Steam reformer unit: Converts natural gas into hydrogen for the hydrotreaters and/or the hydrocracker.
Bitter water stripper: Makes use of steam to remove hydrogen sulfide gasoline from various wastewater streams for subsequent conversion into end-product sulfur within the Claus unit.
Utility models: Corresponding to cooling towers for furnishing circulating cooling water, steam generators, instrument air programs for pneumatically operated management valves and an electrical substation.
Wastewater collection and treating methods consisting of API oil-water separators, dissolved air flotation (DAF) models and a few kind of further treatment (comparable to an activated sludge biotreater) to make the wastewaters suitable for reuse or for disposal.
Liquified gasoline (LPG) storage vessels for propane and related gaseous fuels at a pressure sufficient to maintain them in liquid type. These are normally spherical vessels or bullets (horizontal vessels with rounded ends).
Storage tanks for crude oil and completed products, often vertical, cylindrical vessels with some kind of vapor emission management and surrounded by an earthen berm to contain liquid spills.
^ J.H. Gary and G.E. Handwerk (1984), Petroleum Refining Expertise and Economics, 2nd Edition, Marcel Dekker, ISBN 0-8247-7150-8
^ W.L. Leffler (1985), Petroleum refining for the nontechnical person, 2nd Version, PennWell Books, ISBN 0-87814-280-0
^ James G. Speight (2006), The Chemistry and Know-how of Petroleum, 4th Version, CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-9067-2
^ one hundred fifty Years of Oil in Romania
^ World Events: 1844-1856
^ Brian Black (2000), Petrolia: the panorama of America’s first oil increase, John Hopkins College Press, ISBN 0801863171
^ Similar as References 1 and a couple of
^ Refinery flowchart (From the web site of Common Oil Merchandise)
^ Sulfur manufacturing report (From the website of the United States Geological Survey)
^ Dialogue of recovered byproduct sulfur
^ Products made from a barrel of crude oil U.S. Department of Energy, Vitality Data Administration.
^ Similar as References1 and 2
^ Henry Z. Kister (1992), Distillation Design, 1st Version, McGraw-Hill, ISBN zero-07-034909-6
^ Milton R.Beychok (1967), Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants, 1st Version, John Wiley & Sons, Library of Congress Management Number 67019834
^ Identical as Reference 14
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