Petroleum refining within the United States in 2013 produced 18.9 million barrels per day of refined petroleum products, greater than every other country.[2] Although the US was the world’s largest net importer of refined petroleum products as just lately as 2008, the US became a internet exporter in 2010, and in 2014 was the largest exporter and the most important web exporter of refined petroleum.[Three] As of January 2015, there were 137 working refineries in the US, distributed among 30 states.

Largest petroleum refining companies in the United States

Inside the tower and packingLargest petroleum refineries within the United States

1 Historical past
2 Geography
3 Merchandise three.1 Byproduct sulfur

The first known US petroleum refiner was Samuel Kier of Pittsburgh, who in the 1850s produced an illuminating oil for miners’ lamps.

American petroleum refining largely grew out of oil shale refining. When the Drake Nicely began producing in 1859, the oil shale industry was rising rapidly, and establishing refineries close to cannel coal deposits alongside the Ohio River Valley. As oil manufacturing elevated, the oil shale refiners found that their refining course of worked simply as effectively with petroleum, and that petroleum was a less expensive raw material than shale oil. In 1861, the present oil shale refiners switched to petroleum feedstock, and the oil shale mines shut down.

In the 1800s, the principal refined product was kerosene for illuminating oil. The heaviest fraction was used as lubricating oil. A market developed for gas oil as it was discovered that petroleum was superior to coal in powering the big engines of ships and railroad locomotives.

The popularity of the vehicle within the early 1900s created a mass market for gasoline, and a scarcity quickly developed of the lighter gasoline fractions of crude oil. The scarcity was solved by the invention of the catalytic cracker, which broke lengthy hydrocarbon chains into smaller molecules.

Geography[edit]

Most massive refineries are near navigable waterways, particularly seaports or Nice Lakes ports. The one largest concentration of refineries is along the Gulf Coast.[11] Though there are refineries in 30 states, simply three states dominate US refining: Texas (forty seven operating refineries), Louisiana (19), and California (18). As of January 2015, these three states contain forty five% of all US refineries and fifty nine% of all US refining capacity.[12]

Merchandise[edit]

The three largest-volume products of US refineries are gasoline, gas oil (including diesel gasoline and dwelling heating oil), and aviation gas, which together make up more than eighty four % of output.[13]

Byproduct sulfur[edit]

Petroleum refineries recuperate elemental sulfur as a byproduct. In 2012, US oil refineries recovered 7.4 million metric tons of sulfur, value about $915 million, and amounting to 88% of the elemental sulfur produced in the US.[14]

Worldwide trade[edit]

The United States was for many years, by means of 2008, the world’s largest web importer of refined petroleum products. However the state of affairs rapidly modified in 2008 as American refineries became way more value-competitive attributable to massive increases in US manufacturing of oil, natural fuel, and pure gas liquids. The US grew to become a internet exporter of refined petroleum in 2010, and since 2013 has been the world’s largest net exporter of refined petroleum. In 2014, the US exported three.83 million barrels per day and imported 1.35 million barrels per day of refined petroleum, for net exports of two.48 million barrels per day.[15]

The competitive benefit of US refiners has been attributed to the lower worth of American crude oil, as reflected by the Oklahoma-based index worth West Texas Intermediate, versus the costlier European-based mostly index price Brent Crude. As a consequence of the great surge in American production of oil, pure gasoline, and natural gas liquids since 2008, those products have been cheaper within the North American market than worldwide, giving American refiners a major value benefit.[Sixteen] The low cost on US crude is partially attributed to the lengthy-standing federal ban on exports of American crude oil.[17]

European Union refiners have been hard-hit by the growth in US exports. They lost a lot of their earlier gasoline exports to the US, and likewise market share within the worldwide market to the newly competitive US refineries. As well as, US refineries have increasingly exported petroleum products to the EU. In 2008, US exports of gas oil (dwelling heating gas) surged to a 31% market share within the EU, up from 5% the earlier yr; in 2011, US imports held a 37% market share of gasoil in the EU.[18] There has been discussion that EU refineries must shut down without government intervention. [19]

^ “U.S. Power Info Administration: High 10 U.S. Refineries Operable Capacity”. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
^ OPEC, Statistical Bulletin, 2014
^ OPEC, Annual Statistical Bulletin, 2015.
^ “Tesoro Closes Western Refining Merger, To Be Named Andeavor”. NASDAQ.com. 2017-06-05. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
^ a b c report, Advocate workers. “Shell assumes possession of Norco, Convent refineries in Motiva deal with Saudi Aramco”. The Advocate. Retrieved 2017-06-04.
^ “PBF Energy Completes Acquisition of the Torrance Refinery and Associated Logistics Belongings”. investors.pbfenergy.com. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
^ “Island Vitality finalizes deal for Chevron Hawaii refinery, downstream assets”. www.ogj.com. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
^ “Tesoro Closes Western Refining Merger, To Be Named reaction kettle Andeavor”. NASDAQ.com. 2017-06-05. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
^ US Power Data Administration, Desk 5, 2015.
^ US Power Info Administration, Desk 5, 2015.
^ US Power Information Administration, Much of the country’s refinery capability is concentrated alongside the Gulf Coast, 19 July, 2012.
^ US Vitality Information Administration, Refining capacity by state.
^ US Power Information Administration, Refinery Yield accessed 26 July 2015.
^ Lori E. Apodaca, Sulfur, US Geological Survey, 2012 Minerals Yearbook, Feb. 2015.
^ OPEC, Knowledge Obtain, Tables 5.4 and 5.7, 2014.
^ Nicolas Sakelaris, “How the shale growth translates into huge earnings for US refineries,” Dallas Enterprise Journal, 5 June 2014.
^ Ed Crooks, “US oil refiners face battle to prolong halcyon days,” Financial Times, 17 Aug. 2014.
^ Chris Beddoes, “Competitiveness of European refining,” 6th Oil Discussion board of the Power Neighborhood, 30 Sept. 2014.
^ Tara Patel, “French refineries at risk as demand weakens, trade foyer says,” Bloomberg, 10 Mar.

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