Blyth (BTH) calls itself a “dwelling expressions firm”. Most individuals call it a candle firm. Neither description is fully accurate.

Blyth can rightly be referred to as the world’s largest scented candle company, as a result of larger opponents like S.C. Johnson and Sara Lee (SLE) are primarily engaged in different companies. Like its smaller rival The Yankee Candle Firm (YCC), Blyth is primarily a scented candle firm. However, in contrast to the Yankee Candle Firm, Blyth has substantial non-candle associated operations – hence the “residence expressions” designation.

I am unsure what a home expression is; however I am fairly sure espresso would not qualify. From that truth alone we are able to safely say Blyth isn’t actually a home expressions company (last year, Blyth acquired Boca Java, a web based retailer of espresso, tea, and sizzling chocolate). Blyth might not be a pure play scented candle company or a pure play “home expressions” company; but, that does not imply it’s merely a hodgepodge of unrelated companies.

There is a technique to Blyth’s madness. From the producer’s perspective, candles, ceramics, frames, vases, espresso, and gourmet meals are very different merchandise. However, from the shopper’s perspective, they serve an identical function. Basically, Blyth sells personal indulgences to girls at affordable prices. That is an enormous business within the U.S., Canada, and Europe. It also happens to be a great business.


Since 1998, Blyth has had a mean return on assets of 10.33% and an average return on fairness of 18.Fifty five%. One of the best methods to measure the inherent profitability of a business (independent of its current capitalization structure) is to make use of the pre-tax return on non-money belongings (PTRONCA). Over the past decade, Blyth has had a PTRONCA of about 19.21%, which is excellent – although far from nice.

To place that 19.21% PTRONCA into perspective, consider it this manner: independent of its capitalization structure, Blyth generated slightly over nineteen cents for every greenback invested within the enterprise (before taxes).

Essentially, this means that if Blyth hadn’t utilized any debt in anyway it could have had a return on fairness of roughly 12% (after taxes). Although a 12% return on equity would not sound all that impressive, attaining a 12% ROE with out utilizing any debt would really symbolize a stable performance for many public firms underneath most economic circumstances.

Of course, over the past decade Blyth really averaged a a lot higher return on equity (18.Fifty five%). During this period, Blyth utilized a cloth (however removed from egregious) quantity of debt. In consequence, the corporate surpassed its own acknowledged objective of achieving a 15% annual return on fairness.

Primarily based on Blyth’s past ROA and PTRONCA, it appears to be an excellent enterprise. If we put apart GAAP accounting for a moment and look on the financial earnings of the business, we’ll see that Blyth has actually performed a bit better than its reported internet earnings figures counsel.

Cash Movement

Blyth’s free cash move margin was excellent in each of the last several years. For the previous 5 years, the company’s FCF margin has ranged from 5% to 12%. Many companies could be satisfied with a 5% free cash movement margin. So, even when Blyth was at the underside of this range, it was generating loads of free money stream.

Blyth’s free money movement has been very excessive relative to its reported internet revenue. Over the previous ten years, Blyth had a mean reported net income of $70.2 million versus an average free money circulation of $seventy nine.5 million.

Unfortunately, this hole would be fully erased if free cash move was diminished by the amount Blyth has spent on acquisitions. From a shareholder’s perspective, such a reduction is appropriate. Acquisitions eat up money in exactly the same method an investment in a brand new plant does.

Nevertheless, it is value contemplating the 2 strains separately, because it is much simpler to match cash outflows with specific acquisitions than it’s to match money outflows with specific investments in an current enterprise. This is especially true when taking a look at a company like Blyth, because a number of the acquisitions are in numerous businesses (and totally different geographic locations).

Blyth has been in a position to consistently generate quite a bit of free money circulate. Over the past ten years, money movement from operations (CFFO) has averaged $ninety three.Sixty five million. The latter half of the previous decade has been even higher as a result of sales progress. Through the past five years, Blyth’s CFFO has averaged $142.64 million.

During that same period, free cash circulation averaged $125.18 million before acquisitions but solely $60.52 million after acquisitions – which is even less than the corporate’s common reported internet earnings of $72.Sixteen million throughout the identical period.

What does all this imply? For one, it means Blyth’s free money flow has grown excess of its net income over the previous ten years. This is not surprising, considering Blyth invested way more closely in cap-ex from 1997-2001 than it did from 2002-2006. That is normally a great signal, however there are a couple of issues right here.

Slowing Sales

Blyth’s sales progress has slowed significantly throughout the final five years. Before 2001, the company had been growing gross sales at 20% or extra a year – without numerous spending on acquisitions. After 2001, sales development slowed to the mid single digits, regardless of a rise within the amount of money getting used for acquisitions. Slowing sales progress is clearly a concern. Nevertheless, it might not be totally particular to Blyth.

Throughout the early and mid nineties, the growth in scented candles inside the United States was tremendous. By 2000, more than seventy five% of all candles bought in the U.S. were scented. At the moment, Blyth estimated that only 5% of all candles offered in Europe have been scented. So, a really large part of the expansion in scented candles throughout the U.S. was merely a one-time migration from non-scented candles to scented candles.

In an August 1999 interview with The Wall Street Transcript, Blyth’s Chairman & CEO, Robert Goergen, illustrated the diploma of penetration within the U.S. by citing a examine conducted by his firm: “Blyth has executed research the final two years that signifies that when asked of ladies ‘have you bought candles in the last six months?’ 67% of a random pattern will say that sure they’ve. That proportion ranks with ladies’s purchases within the final six months very near lipstick and face make-up, which means that candles are a fairly broad and comparatively routine a part of on a regular basis life.”


As soon as a product has achieved such penetration, it’s inevitable that the speed of sales growth will slow. Gross sales of candles are limited by the number of ladies in the United States, as a result of men is not going to purchase scented candles (except maybe as gifts for ladies).

So, once more than two-thirds of American women say they’ve not too long ago purchased a candle and greater than three-fourths of all candles offered within the U.S. are scented, the truth that the growth in gross sales of scented candles is slowing needs to be seen as inevitable moderately than exceptional.

It’s arduous to track whole sales of scented candles, because they account for a very small a part of an amazing many various retailers’ gross sales. Also, while Blyth and Yankee Candle are public corporations, a lot of their opponents are privately held. The rate of sales growth at both Blyth and Yankee Candle has slowed noticeably in the previous few years. So, Blyth’s current expertise is clearly not unique.

Troubled Instances

Morningstar’s webpage lists Blyth’s stock type as “distressed” – which strikes me as a tad extreme. Nevertheless, there is not any denying Blyth is now going through among the toughest challenges it has had to take care of in a few years.

Blyth’s Chairman and CEO started his most current letter to shareholders as follows:

“Fiscal 2006 was a really difficult yr for Blyth – in some ways, essentially the most difficult in our nearly 30 year historical past. Gross sales development across North America and Europe was difficult to achieve as customers, confronted with report vitality prices, had fewer discretionary dollars than in years past. Furthermore, the influence of double-digit cost increases in all of our main purchased commodities and freight had a dramatic affect on our financial performance.”

Later in his 2006 letter to shareholders, Mr. Goergen put the increased commodities value into perspective:

“Let me provide some context on what the doubling in value of a barrel of oil means to Blyth. The cost of paraffin wax, a byproduct of the petroleum refining process, increased approximately 20% over the previous yr, as strong demand continued while capacity declined following the impact of hurricanes on Gulf refineries. Roughly 100 foundation factors of Blyth’s fiscal yr 2006 gross margin decline resulted from higher paraffin, freight, and different commodity costs.”

Blyth has three acknowledged lengthy-time period company objectives:

– 5-10% annual sales and earnings progress

– 10-12% operating margins

– 15%+ return on fairness

For the year, Blyth skilled a slight decline in gross sales and a steep decline in earnings. The company’s operating margin was 3.6% (properly shy of the 10-12% goal). Blyth’s return on fairness also plunged, falling from 17.Forty two% to 4.Ninety%. In other words, the corporate fell far quick of every of its three goals throughout fiscal 12 months 2005.

Second Quarter

During the present fiscal 12 months, Blyth’s outcomes have only worsened. On August 31, 2006, the company reported a second quarter operating lack of $27.7 million compared to a $16.9 million operating revenue in the yr in the past period. All of final quarter’s operating loss (and most of the distinction between this year’s outcomes and last year’s) was attributable to a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $36.8 million.

Final yr’s second quarter was additionally helped by a $5.5 million reserve reversal. Excluding this stuff, second quarter operating revenue was $9.0 million within the second quarter of this year versus $eleven.Four million in the second quarter of last yr.

Blyth additionally took a $68.6 million loss on the discontinued operations of its European wholesale business. In all, Blyth reported a web lack of $89.4 million during the second quarter of this year versus web revenue of $four.2 million during the yr ago period.

Internet sales for the last six months have been basically flat. Sales for the first half of the fiscal yr fell by zero.Forty%, dropping from $545.1 million a year ago to $542.9 million this 12 months.

The good news

The corporate is in much better form than these latest earnings stories counsel. Blyth’s Restructuring efforts have obscured its relatively normal working outcomes. Excluding the restructuring, Blyth’s efficiency has still been far weaker recently than it had been from 1997-2001.

However, the company is not going to proceed to report losses for years to come. Even over the last twelve months, Blyth has generated nearly $a hundred million in cash from operations and over $80 million in free money movement. So, the net loss is actually somewhat deceptive when contemplating the company on a continuing basis. These losses will not proceed.

The Unhealthy Information

Blyth does face real challenges – and never simply the short-time period challenges introduced by larger commodity prices.

Blyth also faces the prospect of declining direct promoting revenue within the U.S. Over the past yr, the variety of unbiased gross sales consultants in the company’s U.S. PartyLite enterprise fell by greater than 7%. There were approximately 24,000 impartial consultants this 12 months versus 26,000 a yr ago.

This decline within the number of energetic unbiased gross sales consultants prompted a 5% decline in sales for the company’s U.S. direct selling operations. Whereas the number of consultants in Canada was flat and the number of consultants in Europe was truly up this year, no one can be shocked by a continuing pattern in the direction of fewer lively independent consultants and thus lower gross sales within the direct selling business as a whole and the U.S. phase particularly.

Direct Selling

Blyth has lengthy been concerned in the direct promoting business. The corporate acquired PartyLite in 1990. That was four years earlier than Blyth’s 1994 IPO; so, PartyLite has been part of Blyth for the entirety of that firm’s historical past as a public company.

Direct Selling accounts for approximately 44.7% of Blyth’s whole revenues. The corporate’s PartyLite subsidiary has greater than forty five,000 lively impartial consultants selling within the U.S., Germany, Canada, the U.K, Austria, France, Switzerland, Finland, Australia, and Mexico. Roughly 24,000 of those 45,000 consultants sell inside the United States. These consultants sell scented candles and other equipment by way of the get together plan technique of in-dwelling selling.

Along with its PartyLite subsidiary, Blyth now owns two other social gathering plan entrepreneurs: Two Sisters Gourmet and Purple Tree. Two Sisters Gourmet is a gourmet meals company. Purple Tree is a crafts oriented business. At current, these companies incur multi-million dollar working losses as Blyth invests to grow them into larger, more worthwhile companies.

No matter their present operating performance, these businesses do appear to be a good fit with Blyth’s existing PartyLite business and acceptable new ventures for the company to pursue. Of course, solely time will inform if any of these ventures develops into the kind of larger, extra profitable direct selling enterprise Blyth is hoping for.


Blyth’s present worth-to-earnings, EV/EBIT, and different such ratios are meaningless, because of the corporate’s recent losses.

Through the final ten years, Blyth has had a mean EBIT of $113.47 million. In the course of the final five years, Blyth’s EBIT has averaged $113.77 million – primarily the same as the company’s ten 12 months common EBIT.

Blyth’s present enterprise value-to-EBIT ratio may be very high, because the corporate only reported $32.03 million in earnings earlier than curiosity and taxes during fiscal 2006.

Blyth’s EV/EBIT ratio could be rather more reasonable if computed utilizing the common EBIT from previous years. Relying on exactly how you calculate each the corporate’s present enterprise worth and its average EBIT from past years the ratio will vary barely. Regardless, this “normalized” EV/EBIT ratio can be around 8.7.

That is a reasonably low EV/EBIT ratio, however not an absurdly low one. To put it in perspective, invert the ratio to get the EBIT/EV yield (essentially a pre-tax earnings yield comparable to the yield on a taxable bond). An EV/EBIT ratio of 8.7 translates into an EBIT/EV yield of eleven.Forty nine%. Clearly, that’s a very good yield – particularly in the present low yield investment atmosphere. Nonetheless, there are higher yields out there.

To be fair, the average EBIT numbers I gave may be unduly conservative as normalized numbers, because they embody Blyth’s abysmal EBIT of $32.03 million in 2006.

A greater normalized figure would most likely be Blyth’s common EBIT from 1999 – 2005. Those seven years may be essentially the most consultant, as a result of they neither penalize Blyth for its extraordinarily poor 2006 performance nor for its far lower whole sales prior to 1999 (remember, Blyth had once been quite the growth story).

In the course of the seven 12 months period beginning in fiscal 12 months 1999 and persevering with through fiscal year 2005, Blyth’s average EBIT was $134.40 million. If this common had been used as Blyth’s normalized EBIT, Blyth’s EV/EBIT ratio would come in a bit decrease at 7.34. That translates into an EBIT/EV yield of roughly thirteen.Sixty three%.

Buying a company vs. Buying a Stock

As a enterprise, Blyth is clearly underpriced. If I were drawing up a listing of businesses promoting for less than they’re worth, Blyth can be near the highest.

If you might buy your complete business by merely paying the present enterprise worth, you’d have your self a really nice deal. But, you cannot. You’ll be able to solely purchase small items of the enterprise by way of the inventory market.

Nobody could buy the complete enterprise at the value at which each piece is promoting within the open market. So, in that respect, you are really getting a greater bargain than you would should you had to amass the whole business.

Unfortunately, there’s a draw back. Buying the entire enterprise is a sexy opportunity, as a result of the acquirer could use the corporate’s money flow as he noticed match. Buying a small piece of Blyth in the stock market doesn’t offer this type of management over the allocation of capital. That’s probably a very big problem, because money will be squandered.

Has Blyth squandered cash previously? Probably not. While it has acquired other corporations (and to this point has little to indicate for a few of these acquisitions), it has typically made these deals at cheap if not rock backside costs. There are lots of other public firms guilty of paying much more for far less.

On the other hand, from the angle of a a hundred% owner, Blyth’s free cash circulate has not been efficiently reinvested within the enterprise in the course of the final several years. The returns produced by additional capital (in the type of acquisitions financed with free cash move) have been meager at best – at least in terms of creating additional free cash move.

Over the last 5 years, Blyth spent $323 million on acquisitions, $230 million on share repurchases, $86 million on dividends, and $66 million on capital expenditures.

Right now, the best use of money would certainly be to purchase again inventory. At these costs, investing in Blyth makes a lot more sense than investing in another business through an acquisition. Hopefully, Blyth’s management recognizes that truth and can act accordingly.

But, must you invest in Blyth? As at all times, that is finally a private determination. Lots of people don’t wish to put money into firms within the midst of such upheaval. That’s positive.

Nevertheless, failing to see the worth in Blyth, merely because of its most current reported outcomes is just not effective. The truth is, it’s a quite common and really expensive mistake.

You will at all times overweight the last datum in a sequence. It is almost not possible to not. Simply as it’s practically inconceivable not to believe the current economic cycle will be completely different from all the remainder.

If Blyth’s most recent results occurred 5 years ago, you would see them for what they are – an aberration. But, as a result of they’re the company’s most latest results (and the final bit of knowledge it’s a must to go on) you will likely see them as the beginning of a brand new and terrible pattern.

Human history favors the interpretation that years of previous information are more informative than a single year of “present” data. Unfortunately, human historical past additionally favors the interpretation that this fact will solely be obvious in hindsight.

Future working outcomes will decide whether or not Blyth is an effective buy in the present day. I do not know what these operating outcomes can be. Nonetheless, I do know they don’t should be notably good to justify buying the stock at its current value.

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