Petroleum Exploration And Improvement In Nigeria
The aim of this chapter is to assessment the work of previous scholars relevant to the world of study. Nonetheless for the aim of dairy, the literature will likely be reviewed alongside the next:
– Historical past of Nigerian Nationwide Petroleum Corporation (NNPC)
– Beginning of NNPC
– Petroleum exploration and development in Nigeria
– The development of Nigeria’s oil industry
– The NNPC oil sector: Politics and technocracy
– historical past and nature of pipeline and product marketing company (PPMC)
– Oputa Panel inquiring of 1975
– Goal of the pipeline interlink undertaking
– Affect of the interlink on the merchandise distribution and advertising and marketing trade in Nigeria
– Authorities policy of 1994
To order the whole Undertaking Materials, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to:
Then send the Mission Topic, Your Electronic mail Handle and Full Identify to 07033378184.
History OF NIGERIAN National PETROLEUM Corporation (NNPC)
The Nigerian government established the Nigerian National Oil Company (NNPC). The NNPC was conferred with the powers to accumulate any asset and legal responsibility in the present oil firms in Nigeria, and to participate in all of the phases of the petroleum trade.
The NNPC operated facet by side with the ministry of petroleum assets until April 1977 when the 2 agencies turned merged to type the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). The Decree No 18 of 1981 established the NNPC repealed the NNOC Decree and dissolved the ministry of petroleum sources. Thus the NNPC as a result of the national oil entity charged with the only responsibility for upstream and downstream growth as well as regulating and supervising the petroleum trade.
In 1985, the NNPC was restructured giving rise to five semi-autonomous sectors. These sectors consists of oil and gas refineries, petrolchemicals, pipelines and merchandise marketing and petroleum inspectorate. The commercialization of NNPC in 1988 resulted in the creation of twelve subsidiaries. A thirteenth subsidiary, the Nationwide Petroleum funding management service (NAPIMS) has been added. The NAPIMS is the subsidiary that oversees the governments investment in joint enterprise arrangements. Also, it is concerned in direct exposition actions.
The other 12 subsidiaries of NNPC are:
– Nigerian Petroleum Development Firm Limited (NNPC)
It is wholly owned by NNPC and is concerned in exploration and manufacturing of crude oil and fuel.
– Built-in Information Services Firm Limited (IDSCL): It’s wholly owned by NNPC and is engaged in seismic data acquisition, processing interpretation, petroleum reservoir engineering information evaluation, pc and other ancillary providers, in Nigeria and Africa eg Ghana.
– Worri Refinery and Petrochemicals Company Restricted (WARPC): It’s wholly owned by NNPC and is engaged within the processing of crude oil into completed petroleum and petrochemical merchandise for domestic consumption and export. Its amenities are located at Warri and Ekpan Warri refinery’s put in capacity is 125,000 barrels per day.
– list of petroleum products pdf 2017 Kaduna Refinery and Petro-chemical Company Restricted (KRPC): It processes crude oil into refinery products and manufactures linear Alkyi Benzene (LAB) and tins and drums for domestic consumption and export. Its facilities are at Kaduna. It is wholly owned by NNPC and its refinery’s installed capability is a hundred and list of petroleum products pdf 2017 fifty,000 barrels a day.
– Nigeria LNG Company Restricted (NLNG): It’s a joint venture between NNPC and three other main oil and gasoline producing corporations in Nigeria, Shell, ELF and AGIP, and the international finance corporation. It’s engaged in the implementation of a liquefied natural fuel venture. Firm commitments have been obtained from buyers in W. Europe and USA for Nigeria’s LNG; first shipment of liquefied pure gas happened in Cate 1999.
– Hyson Nigeria Restricted in Affiliation with Calson (Bermuda ) Restricted (Hyson-calson): It’s a joint venture between NNPC and chevron. It is engaged in petroleum products advertising and marketing in West Africa and beyond. It is another supply for Nigeria crude oil sale.
– Port-Harcourt Refinery Company Restricted (PHRC): It is engaged in petroleum refinery, especially of specialized petroleum product its facilities are at port-Harcourt and it has an put in capacity of 60000 barrels per day.
– Pipelines and Merchandise Marketing Company Limited (PPMC): It transports crud oil to the refineries and moved white petroleum products to the markets through a network of pipelines and depots.
– Nigeria Gas Firm Limited (NGC): The corporate engages in the gathering, treatment, transmission and marketing of Nigeria pure gasoline and its by products to main industrial and utility fuel distribution companies in Nigeria and neighbouring international locations, by means of pipeline and different distribution programs. Eg NEPA and NBL.
– ELEME Petro-chemicals Company Restricted (EPCL): It is a joint enterprise between NNPC and a few private companies. It manufactures petro-chemical merchandise and markets them right here in Nigeria and overseas. Its amenities are at Eleme, and it has an put in capacity of 150000 barrels per day.
– Nationwide Engineering and Technical Firm (NETCO): It is a joint enterprise between NNPC and Beclitel, the US engineering and construction firm. The corporate producers engineering providers for NNPC’S operations.
– NNPC intends to be major participant in the worldwide petroleum enterprise, especially in down-stream actions abroad, thus it intends to set up a global trading and advertising and marketing company.
Delivery OF NNPC
With time, the function of government within the oil industry steadily progressed from regulatory to direct involvement in oil exploration and exploitation. Government’s initial curiosity was mainly in the gathering of royalties and different dues from the oil firms, and in the making of statutory legal guidelines that regulated the actions of the oil trade. This position was on account of the significant contribution of oil to the economy before the later sixties and the absence of regionally educated personnel and expertise.
By 1971, a yr after the Nigeria civil struggle, oil had turn out to be very important to the economic system. To strengthen and established government management in the business. The Nigerian National Oil Company (NNOC) was established by decree in 1971, as an integrated oil firm. It was also in that yr that Nigeria joined the group of petroleum exporting nations (OPEC) because the 11th member nation. The NNOC had accountability for each upstream and down stream activities within the industry.
It was believed that if government had more say in the working of the oil industry, it might achieve its purpose of fast industrial and commercial development of the nation. And at the moment, government participation stands at 55 % in shell and 60 percent in chevron, Mobil, Agip, Texaco and Pan Ocean.
However, on April 6, 1977, a merger between the NNOC and the ministry of petroleum sources created the Nigerian Nationwide Petroleum Company (NNPC). NNPC combined the industrial capabilities of the former NNOC with the regulatory capabilities of the former ministry of petroleum assets.
PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND Development IN NIGERIA
Petroleum manufacturing and export performs a dominant role within the nations economic system for about 90 p.c of the gross export earnings. This dominant role has pushed agriculture, the traditional ministry of the economic system from the early fifties and sixties to the background.
Development OF NIGERIA OIL Industry
The advent of the oil industry might be traced again to 1908, when a German firm the Nigerian Bitumen Corporation commenced exploration activities efforts in the Araroni Space, West of Nigeria. These pioneering efforts ended abruptly with the outbreak of the first world warfare in 1914.
Oil prospecting efforts resumed in 1973, when shell D’Arcy (the forerunner of shell petroleum Development Comprising of Nigeria ) was awarded the only real concessionary rights covering the entire territory of Nigeria. Their activities had been also interrupted by the Second World Battle, however resumed in 1947. concerted efforts after a number of years and on funding of over N30 million, led to the primary commercial discovering in 1956 at Oloibiri within the Niger Delta.
This discovery, opened up the oil business in 1961, bringing in mobil, Agip, safrap (Now Eif ), Tenneco and Amoseas (now Texaco/chevron) to join the exploration efforts both in the onshore and offshore areas of Nigeria. This growth was enhanced by the extension of the concessionary rights previously a nonopoly of shell, to the newcomers. The target of the federal government in doing this was to speed up the tempo of exploration and production of petroleum.
Actual oil manufacturing and export from the daibiri subject commenced in 1958 with an preliminary production price of 5,a hundred barrels of crude oil per day. Subsequently, the quantity doubled the next 12 months and progressively rose to 2.Zero million barrels per day in 1972 and a peak of two.4 million barrels per day in 1979. Nigeria thereafter, attained the standing of a major oil producers, raking seventh on the planet in 1972, and has since grown to become the sixth largest oil producing country on this planet.
2.5 STRUCTURAL Growth OF THE NNPC
To successfully operate as a world class corporation, NNPC was decentralized in 1985, into 5 semi-autonomous sectors each headed by a sector co-ordinator. The 5 sectors were oil and gas, refineries, petroleum, pipelines and products advertising and marketing and petroleum inspectorate. The petroleum inspectorate which had been an integral arm of the NNPC has been transferred to the ministry of petroleum resources however still performs its regulatory functions.
In the present day, the NNPC contains of six directorates, and eleven subsidiary companies charged with the execution of the company business. The brand new NNPC group is headed by a gaggle managing director and has six group executive straight accountable for company companies, exploration and production, refining and petro-chemical, engineering and technical, commercial and investments and finance and accounts.
THE NNPC OIL SECTOR: POLITICS AND TECHNOCRACY
Nigeria it’s well-known depends upon oil for survival. And the Nigerian Nationwide Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) is the public company responsible for each co-ordinating the activities of he oil industry and managing the oil business on behalf of the Nigeria nation the efficiency of this corporation in vital, not only for the oil business, but in addition for the nation as a whole. Subsequently, one acid take a look at of efficient government coverage is the rightness or in any other case of its policy in the direction of the NNPC.
If a government has coverage which by and enormous stimulates NNPC into effective efficiency by creating the enabling surroundings, then the nation will enjoy the benefits of a virile oil economy. Alternatively, a authorities can deliberately or not create an environment that discourages efficient efficiency.
Development since the late 1980’s especially the persistent shortages of petroleum merchandise suggest that the company has not been at its greatest. And if I’m proper I the view that the federal government of the day creates the context enabling atmosphere for optimum performance of the company in the context of its relation with succeeding governments.
Decree No 33 of 1979 which arrange the corporation reserved for the federal government via minister and ministry a supervising and regulative features over the NNPC. The actual management of the corporation in everyday operation is given to the NNPC board and management.
And the good purpose for that is to project the corporation from each the less efficiency – oriented business-cratic culture of the civil service and over-all political affect. The presumption is that an setting of relative autonomy from purple tape and politicization will permit advantage, efficiency and financial rationality to information the day to-day operations of the company. That decrees was clear in stating that the managing director is the chief govt of the company.
This lovely organizational world created by the decree was, I’d say, respected for some time and while that respect lasted, the corporation by and enormous, performed creditably. Then, abruptly all things began changing.
Two developments all traceable to the changing context of political power, paved the way in which for altering the rule-governed relationship between authorities and the corporation. One of those developments happened in the Buhari Wiagbon period when the government allowed the minister to grow to be the Chief government of the corporation. This was, specialists have identified, contrary to the legislation that set up the NNPC, nevertheless it was allowed without bothering to amend the decree accordingly. And naturally subsequent ministers have tended to take advantage of exploiting it by indulging themselves within the NNPC.
All forms of political affect in undated the company since the ministers now and tend to themselves as both the political boss and the chief government of the corporation. The road between supervision and each day administration was initiated as among the ministers freely governed the company with their preferences, biases, pursuits and politics.
Since the decree was not amended the regulation still in favour of the corporations management employees and technocrats. One logical factor to anticipate was for there technocrats and extremely talented specialists and professionals within the corporation to resist occasional ministerial high handedness. However these did pay clearly for it. And that is where the second improvement grew to become relevant.
This second development is the erosion of the outdated public service culture and the safety it afforded public officers. Underneath that tradition, the public service commission ensured that any public officer was given a fair hearing earlier than discipline him or her. The Muhammed Obasanjo regime weakened the oil public service safety techniques by making a system which permitted public servants to be summarily dismissed with out even a hearing. Under this new dispensation. Public servants who requested uncomfortable question or had the ethical courage to resist ministerial or political indiscretions were summarily handled.
In different words once you made the minister the chief government and removed the safety system which enabled some public servants to examine the indiscretions of succeeding political executives, you exposed the company to unbridled political take over.
The first group of technocrats, who fell to the axe of the political males are the founding fathers of the company, who had the ethical courage to speak out. You remember the Festus Marihnos, the Sam Akpes, the Cufegis and the Aolomaris. After which of course the Artwork Adams to mention essentially the most conspicuous ones.
The corporations good file of performance in response to set standards, the wonderful procedures for recruitment and promotion, and even the company solidarity amongst the technocrats in warring off political interference gave way to the ministers interest and sensibilities. Employees could now be moved up or down not on the basis of their performance however because of the preferences of the minister or some political heavy weight on the presidency.
One minister, for situations, launched quots recruitment which made state of origin somewhat than benefit and performance foundation for recruitment.
Another minister allegedly moved one of the his favoured boys up from deputy supervisor of admission of a subsidiary to the group executive directorship place. Because of this in solely four years the favoured gentleman jumped from deputy supervisor to manager, to common manger and the group govt director all because he was the nice books of a specific minister.
This type of state of affairs tended to demoralize the work drive, scale back diligence and dedication and introduce. Sycophancy as a survival strategy.
You usually can not have quality efficiency when politics take over. Undue politicization of NNPC resulted in displacement of advantage, decline in productivity and down grading of self-discipline. The culture and ethos of the corporations tended to become one of many apathy and sycophancy.
All of this resulted in a certain privatization of NNPC/ do not imply right here the typical/privatization. Somewhat I imply the method by which non-company official tried to make use of the corporation to offered their self involved non-public Egenela. In view of this, I might agree that the best way out of this impasse is to go forward with the proposed commercialization of the actions key parastatal in an effort to free it from the constructing affect of political interventional.
HISTROY AND NATURE OF PIPELINE AND PRODUCT Advertising and marketing Firm (PPMC)
—This article is not complete———-This text just isn’t complete————
This article was extracted from a Mission Research Work/Material Matter
“FUEL DISTRIBUTION IN NIGERIA: Issues AND Solutions
(A CASE Study OF NNPC ENUGU DEPOT).”
To purchase full Challenge Material, Pay the sum of N3, 000 to our financial institution accounts under:
Bank Name: GUARANTY Belief Bank (GTB)
ACCOUNT Number: 0044056891
Bank Title: FIRST Financial institution PLC
ACCOUNT Identify: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT Number: 3066880122
After paying the sum of N3, 000 into any of our bank accounts, send the beneath details to our Telephone: 07033378184
Your Depositors Name
Your E-mail Deal with
Send the above particulars to: 07033378184 or on/earlier than 24hours of cost. We are going to send your full venture materials to your e-mail 30 Mins after fee.
Articlesng.com will solely provide papers as a reference for your analysis. The papers ordered and produced should be used as a guide or framework for your personal paper. It’s the aim of Articlesng.com to only present steering by which the paper ought to be pursued. We are neither encouraging any form of plagiarism nor are we advocating the use of the papers produced herein for dishonest.