Base Oil is the name given to lubrication grade oils initially produced from refining crude oil (mineral base oil) or via chemical synthesis (synthetic base oil). Base oil is usually defined as oil with a boiling point vary between 550 and 1050 F, consisting of hydrocarbons with 18 to forty carbon atoms. This oil will be either paraffinic or napthenic in nature relying on the chemical construction of the molecules.

Group I

Group I base stocks include lower than 90 p.c saturates and/or greater than .03 % sulfur and have viscosity index larger than or equal to eighty and less than 120.

Group II

Group II base stocks include higher than or equal to 90 percent saturates and lower than or equal to .03 p.c sulfur and have viscosity index higher than or equal to eighty and lower than 120.

Group III

Group III base stocks contain higher than or equal to 90 percent saturates and lower than or equal to .03 percent sulfur and have viscosity index greater than or equal to one hundred twenty.

Group IV

Group IV base stocks are polyalphaolefins (PAO).

Group V

Group V base stocks include all different base stocks not included in Group I, II, III, IV.

Normally, only 1% to 2% of a barrel of crude oil is appropriate for refining into base oil. The vast majority of the barrel is used to produce gasoline and other hydrocarbons. (please see determine E-1 at left)

Lubricating oil is produced by “Blenders and Compounders” who combine base oil with 1% to 20% utility-particular chemical additives, which improve the performance of the base oil. The “compounded” Lubricating oil is then packaged and sold to end customers. (The table under lists some of the various types of additives used and their capabilities.)

The refiners, who manufacture and sell base oil, and the Blenders/Compounders, who manufacture and promote lubricating oil and usually are not always the same entities, although they are often. For instance, Exxon is each a refiner and a Blender/Compounder since they manufacture each base oil lubricating oil. Most of the base oil they produce, they Petroleum Refining Process Equipment use. The amounts they do not use, they sell by giant commodity markets to “Independent” Blenders and Compounders. These Blenders and Compounders are known as “unbiased” as a result of they do not produce their very own base oil but reasonably purchase it from a refiner.

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